Salmonella typhimurium is rod-like enterobacterium causes paratyphoid in pigeons,but it is not considered a treat to human health .Salmonella causes many fatalities in young pigeons even before the babies are out of the nest or the eggshell.Salmonella bacteria also cause diarrhea,problems with the joints, and nervous problems.
Certain old pigeons can be asymptomatic carriers (called the carrier state ), constantly endangering the whole pigeon flock on a recurring basis. certain new generation antibiotics are said to kill this carrier state.Salmonella bacteria are passed through the air, in the droppings of infected birds, via the crop milk,in the saliva,or in infected eggs as they are being laid.salmonella organisms can enter egg within two days.washing egg does not help to stop salmonella.There are four forms of the disease,which can infect the bird at the same time
The intestinal form enters the walls of the intestine, resulting in diarrhoea with foul smelling, soupy,green or brown droppings surrounded by slime and containing undigested food particles.A green colour in the droppings can also indicate an advanced worm infection in the liver
In the joint form the bacteria enter the bloodstream and infect the joints,resulting in excess production of synovial fluid, which causes intense swelling. The "ball" in the foot, or a lump in a joint or on the wing at the elbow are very common symptoms. The pigeon hobbles or a wing hangs, or it "favors" a limb and does not use it in an attempt to relieve the intense pain.
The organ form occurs after the bacteria move from the bloodstream to infect the liver kidneys,pancreas,heart and so on.The sick bird moped in a corner of the loft, and becomes inactive , short of breath,and near sighted
In the nerve form the bacteria infect the nerves and spinal column,spreading along the sinews,causing imbalance and crippling.Twisting the neck,fouling the cloaca, and cramp like contractions of the toes are typical symptoms.A pigeon may recover from this stage,ultimately but it probably will never go on to fly or breed
Vaccinating the birds every year is the best method to prevent it . Chevivac-S is the vaccine available from chevita for Salmonella
The loft and birds must be treated at the same time .A probiotic should be given to restore the acidic balance in the intestine . The loft and everything in it must be thoroughly cleaned and sprayed with a disinfectant pr the disease process will repeat itself
1: Enrofloxacine 10% dosage 1 to 2 ml per litter of water
2:Trimethoprim Sulfa dosage 5 grams to 20 kg body weight3:Furaltadone 6% dosage 5 grams per liter of drinking water (= 20 to 25 pigeons)
Enrofloxacine is available in India sold under the names Enflocin / Enrocin/ Meriquin/QuinRocin and outside india under the name Baytril
For more details on the medicine and treatment plan please visit the below links